The Lingua Descriptive Studies Questionnaire: Answers for GSF

Table of Contents

(skip table of contents)

1. Syntax

1.1. General questions

1.1.1. Sentence-types

1.1.2. Subordination

1.2. Structural questions

1.2.1. Internal structure of the sentence Copular sentences Verbal sentences

1.2.2. Adjective phrases

1.2.3. Adverbial phrase

1.2.4. Prepositional phrases/postpositional phrases

1.2.5. Noun phrase (nominal constituent)

1.3. Coordination

1.3.3. Repeat the above two questions for the following major categories

1.4. Negation

1.4.1. How is sentence negation expressed?

1.4.2. How is constituent negation expressed?

1.4.3. If there is more than one negation element in a sentence is the result positive or negative?

1.4.4. In coordinated structures are the negation elements optionally or obligatorily attracted to the coordinator position, combining with the coordinator? If so, describe the forms that result from this.

1.4.5. Can the negation of a verb in a subordinate clause be expressed by the negation of the verb of the immediately higher clause / a more distant higher clause?

1.5. Anaphora

1.5.1. By which of the following means is anaphora expressed?

1.5.2. In which of the following situations is anaphora expressed by means of the various above-mentioned types possible, and in which direction? Describe any restrictions within any of the possibilities below:

1.5.3. Are elements located next to complementizers (subordinating conjunctions) subject to the above anaphoric processes?

1.6. Reflexives

1.6.1. By which of the following means is reflexivity expressed?

1.6.2. Is the scope of reflexivity restricted to the clause, i.e. must antecedent and reflexive element be in the same clause?

1.6.3. For intraclause reflexivity where the reflexive element is a verbal affix describe:

1.6.4. If the reflexive element is not a verbal affix, describe its positional possibilities within the clause. If the position of this element is not restricted to one place in the clause it may be simpler to answer this question in cobination with the following one.

1.6.5. If the reflexive element is not a verbal affix, can the following relations between antecedent and reflexive exist?

1.6.6. Can reflexive relations exist within nominalized clauses?

1.6.7. Can reflexive relations exist within ordinary noun phrases? Describe the possibilities.

1.6.8. Do reflexive structures occur without any overt antecedent, e.g. in nonfinite clauses, nominalizations, or ordinary noun phrases (e.g. Dutch het verhaal over zichzelf was spannend “the (my, your, etc.) story about myself, yourself, etc. was exciting”).

1.6.9. Do the reflexive forms have any other uses, e.g.

1.7. Reciprocals. Repeat the same questions as under reflexive (1.6)

1.8. Comparison

1.8.1. By which of the following means is comparison expressed?

1.8.2. What elements in the sentence can be omitted under identity between the comparative clause and the clause it is subordinate to?

1.8.3. What elements cannot be omitted under these conditions?

1.8.4. What elements must be omitted under these conditions?

1.8.5. Is there a clear difference between the two types of comparative structure, if both exist:

1.8.6. How is correlative comparison expressed (e.g. English the hotter the better; the more he eats the fatter he gets; the heavier the lorry, the worse the smell)?

1.9. Equatives. Repeat the same questiosn as under comparatives (1.8)

1.10. Possession

1.10.1. How are sentences expressing possession constructed?

1.10.2. Is there any difference between the expression of alienable and inalienable possession or subtypes of these? Describe.

1.10.3. Is there any difference between the expression of temporary and permanent possession? Describe.

1.10.4. Is there any difference in the expression of possession relative to persons, animals, and things?

1.10.5. Is there any difference in the expression of present and past possession? Describe.

1.11. Emphasis

1.11.1. How is sentence emphasis expressed?

1.11.3. How is the focus of a yes-no-question indicated? Compare 1.11. 2 for possibilities.

1.12. Topic

1.12.1 Are there means of indicating the topic of a sentence? If so, how?

1.12.2. Which elements can be topicalized by the various means?

1.12.3. For each of the above possibilities, state whether topicalization is obligatory or optional, and if optional the degree of preference for topicalizing.

1.13. Heavy Shift

1.13.1. Are there processes in the language by which structures consisting of a head with either a large number of adjuncts, or one or more complex adjuncts—in other words a “heavy” structure—are optionally or obligatorily moved to some other position in the sentence than that which they would normally occupy?

1.13.2. What kind of structures are subject to Heavy Shift?

1.13.3. To what position are such structures moved? Describe for each of the above.

1.13.4. In the event of more than one such heavy phrase being moved to the same position, what is there relative order?

1.13.5 Can Heavy Shift take place with elements located next to complementizers (subordinating conjunctions)?

1.14. Other movement processes

1.14.1. Describe any other processes involving movement of an element from one position to another.

1.15. Minor sentence-types

1.15.1 Are there any minor sentence-types (e.g. English to the dungeons with him!; why do such a thing?; Dutch wat te doen?). Describe.

1.16. Are there operational definitions for the following word-classes?

1.16.1. noun

1.16.2. pronoun—different types

1.16.3. verb

1.16.4. adjective

1.16.5. pre-/postposition

1.16.6. numeral/quantifier

1.16.7. others

2. Morphology

2.1. inflection

2.1.1. Noun-inflection

2.1.2. Pronouns

2.1.3. Verb morphology

2.1.4. Adjectives

2.1.5. Prepositions/postpositions

2.1.6. Numerals/quantifiers

2.1.7. Adverbs

2.1.8. Clitics

2.2. Derivational morphology

3. Phonology

3.1. Phonological units (segmental)

3.1.1. What are the distinctive segments of the language?

3.1.2. List the elements as follows, giving details of any significant allophony and phonetic realization:

3.2. Phonotactics

3.2.1. Does the language admit

3.2.3. Does the language admit

3.2.4. Does the structure of lexical morphemes correspond with the possibilities for wordstructure? If not, how does it differ?

3.3. Suprasegmentals

3.3.1. Are there distinctive degrees of length in

3.4. Morphophonology (segmental)

3.4.2. Are there metathesis processes? Give details of all such processes, indicating productivity.

3.4.3. Are there processes of coalescence or split (syntagmatic) in the language? Give details of all such processes, indicating productivity.

3.4.5. Are there processes of reduplication (partial or complete) in the language? Give details of all such processes, indicating productivity.

3.4.6. Other processes

3.5. Morphophonology (suprasegmental)

3.5.3. Do particular types of intonation pattern cause any phonological change in the segmental elements they overlie? If so, describe fully

4. Ideophones and interjections

4.1. Does the language make use of ideophones?

4.2. Does the language make use of interjections that do not conform to the regular principles regarding the phonological structure of words?

5. Lexicon

5.1. Structured semantic fields

5.1.1. kinship terminology

5.1.2. colour terminology

5.1.3. body parts

5.1.4. cooking terminology

5.1.5. any other structured semantic fields

5.2. Basic vocabulary

Valid HTML 4.01 Strict

$Id: questionnaire.html 94 2007-05-05 19:34:41Z PNE $