Table of Contents

(skip table of contents)


Simple prepositions

Compound prepositions

Prepositional phrases

Comparison of adjectives and adverbs

Comparative and superlative: More

Adjectives and adverbs are compared by using πьο.

The comparative form uses merely πьο; the superlative form uses the definite article as well, το(ς) πьο. (This means that if the adjective is modifying a definite noun, the comparative and superlative forms are the same.)

Examples: μεγαλο· πьο μεγαλο· το πьο μεγαλο "big; bigger; biggest"; τος μικρος βιβљιος· τος πьο μικρος βιβљιος "the small books; the smaller/smallest books".

The standard of comparison is introduced with απο, both for the comparative and for the superlative: το бλε βιβљιο ινε πьο ακριβο απο το μοβ βιβљιο "the blue book is more expensive than the purple book"; το Παβλο ινε το πьο εξιπνο απο ολος τος πεδις "Paul is the smartest of all the children".

Similarly for adverbs: μενα τρεξι πьο γριγορο απο σενα "I run faster than you"; το Ελεњι μιљισι το πьο καλο απο ολος τος μαθιτις "Helen speaks best of all the students".

Comparisons need not state a standard of comparison: μιљισι πьο δινατο "Speak louder!"; το јο μυ ινε το πьο καλο πεχτι "my son is the best player".


The comparisons "A is less Q than B" and "A is the least Q of B" are expressed, respectively, as το A ινε πьο љιγο Q απτο B and το A ινε το πьο љιγο Q απτο B, respectively.


"A is as Q as B" is expressed as το A ινε τοσο Q οσο το B.

Relative clauses

Relative clauses are formed with πυ.

The head of a relative clause is typically not resumed in the relative clause, but it can be resumed with a pronoun, especially if it is neither the subject nor the object (but instead, for example, the object of a preposition).

Some examples: Μεњι δι το ανдρα πυ сι γραψι το βιβљιο "I see the man who wrote the book" (head is subject of the relative clause); Μενα δι το βιβљιο πυ σενα сι αγορασι "I see the book that you bought" (head is object of the relative clause); Μενα γνορισι το јινεκα πυ σενα сι παι στο ќιњιματογραφο με αφτο "I know the woman you went to the cinema with" (head is object of a preposition); Τυτο ινε το πεδι πυ το Παβλο сι μιљισε στο Јαњι ќε αφτο "Paul spoke to John and this child" (literally, *"This is the child who Paul spoke to John and"; head is object of a conjunction).

Conditional sentences

Like most languages, GSF makes a difference between realis conditionals (conditions that are certain or are regarded as likely) and irrealis conditionals (conditions that are regarded as less likely or that are known to be false).

Realis conditionals

Realis conditionals, or the first conditional form, use αν "if" in the protasis (the condition), and nothing or τοτε "then" in the apodosis (the result). Both the protasis and the apodosis are in the appropriate tense, which can be any tense.

Examples: Αν μενα θα јιњι προεδρο, μενα θα κατεβασι το φορο "If I become president, I will lower taxes" (note future in GSF, to match the semantic tense, rather than the present as in English); Αν ενα ζοο εсι τεσερα ποδις, αφτο ινε τετραποδο "If an animal has four legs, it is four-legged" (timeless or "scientific" truths are in the present; Αν αφτο сι παρι το πτισι χτες, αφτο сι φτασι στο Εθњικο Αεροδρομьο / αφτο ινε στο ποљι μας σιμερα / μας θα δι αφτο αβριο "If she took the flight yesterday, she arrived at the National Airport / she is in our city today / we shall see her tomorrow" (protasis in the past, apodosis in the past/present/future); Αν βρεξι τορα, сι βρεξι στο Διτικο Οχτι χτες / τος ρυχος συ μυσќεψι / μας θα βρι ποљις μαњιταρις το επομενο εβδομαδα "If it's raining now, it rained on the West Coast yesterday / your clothes are getting wet / we shall find many mushrooms next week" (protasis in the present, apodosis in the past/present/future); Αν θα βρεξι σιμερα το αποјεβμα, το μετεορολοјικο δελτιο ψες сι ινε λαθο / σενα бορεσι να ξεχασι το παρτι συ αποψε / ολος θα μιњι σπιτι τας "If it rains this afternoon, the weather forecast yesterday was wrong / you can forget your party tonight / everybody will stay at home" (protasis in the future [again, not in the present as in English], apodosis in the past/present/future).

Irrealis conditionals

Irrealis conditionals use αμбι "if" in the protasis and θαμбι "would" in the apodosis. Αμбι is at the beginning of the clause, but θαμбι stands in front of the verb (and any pre-verbal tense particles that might be there).

The natural tenses are not used, especially for the protasis. Rather, a fixed tense is used in the protasis, depending on whether the second or third conditional form is used, and the syntactic tense in the apodosis is sometimes further in the past than the semantic tense.

Second conditional

The second conditional form is used for conditional sentences where the condition is considered as unlikely, and where the condition is in the present or the future.

The protasis uses αμбι and the past tense. The apodosis uses θαμбι; the verb is in the past form for a present or future meaning, and in the pluperfect for a pluperfect, past, or future perfect meaning.

Examples: Αν αφτο сι ινε στο γραφιο σιμερα, αφτο θαμбι сι ξερι τι μας πρεπι να καњι "If she were in the office today, she would know what we should do"; Αν μενα сι ќερδισι το λαсιο, μενα θαμбι сι αγορασι ενα ќενυρьο αφτοќιњιτο "If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car"; Αμбι μενα сι ινε Προεδρο, μενα θαμбι ιсε κατεβασι τος φορος πριν απο πενдε χρονος ќολας / μενα θαμбι ιсε κατεβασι το ανερјια / μενα θαμбι сι εκδοσι μονο καλος νομος / μενα θαμбι сι βελτιοσι το περιβαλονдα / μενα θαμбι ιсε αњιξι 200 ќενυρьο σχοљιο μεχρι το 2010 "If I were Present, I would have lowered taxes five years ago already / I would have lowered unemployment / I would enact only good laws / I would improve the environment / I would have opened 200 new schools by 2010" (apodosis with pluperfect/past/present/future/future perfect meaning).

Third conditional

The third conditional form is used for conditional sentences where the condition is in the past and is known to be false.

The protasis uses αμбι and the pluperfect. As with the second conditional form, the apodosis uses θαμбι and the verb is in the past form for a present or future meaning, and in the pluperfect for a pluperfect, past, or future perfect meaning.

Examples: Αμбι σενα ιсε καλεσι μενα, μενα θαμбι ιсε ερθι "If you had called me, I would have come"; Αμбι σενα ιсε καњι το δυљα συ καλο, μας δε θαμбι сι ινε σε τυτο το καταστασι "If you had done your work well, we would not be in this situation".

Valid HTML 4.01 Strict

$Id: syntax.html 279 2007-07-06 05:09:38Z PNE $